Tuesday, 22 February 2011

Gospel lecterns

Cropredy, Oxfordshire
Lectern at Cropredy, Oxfordshire

Quite a number of medieval lecterns survive in English parish churches. Many of the surviving examples are fifteenth or early sixteenth century and are made of brass (latten). They take the form (as shown in the examples below from Cropredy in Oxfordshire and Croft in Lincolnshire) of an eagle of with its wings outstretched, perched on a large brass mond, which in turn is supported on a stem and a base, that sits on the backs of three little lions. Where these eagle lecterns where produced is a little unclear, some maybe English, but many are believed to have been fabricated in the Low Countries, which in the late Middle Ages had a thriving trade in luxury metal goods.
Croft, Lincolnshire

Croft, Lincolnshire

Most of the surviving English medieval lecterns are now to be found at the east end of the nave of a parish church, to one side of the chancel arch and supporting a large lectern Bible. That has not always been the case. Prior to the Reformation and the Advent of the large Bible for public use, these lecterns generally formed part of the furnishings of the chancel and were placed up close the high altar. The two early sixteenth century illustrations below, demonstrate how many of these lecterns were probably positioned. 
westminster2

The first illustration is taken from the Islip roll and shows the high altar at Westminster Abbey as it appeared at the funeral of Abbot John Islip in 1532.

Flemish Prayerbook of Joanna of Ghistelles, c. 1516.

The second is from a Flemish book of hours of c.1516, which shows the office for the dead taking place in a wonderful Gothic interior. In both of these illustrations the lectern is placed in a similar position, at the bottom of the altar steps slightly to the north of the altar. The eagle, or in the case of the second illustration a pelican in her piety, are orientated to face towards the north. In this position the lectern was used as a support for the gospel book during the singing of the liturgical gospel at high mass. As is shown in this woodcut illustration (below) from Gherit van der Goude’s, Dat Boexken Vander Missen, the deacon faced towards the north to proclaim the Gospel, in order to avoid turning his back on the altar itself.
Dat Boexken Vander Missen - The Gospel

To be continued ... choir lecterns

7 comments:

Ray Barnes said...

Thanks for the illustrations and the explanations. There is a very similar one to that at Cropredy in St. Mary's Aylesbury. (Affectionately known as "the budgie", it holds the bible with the readings each Sunday.

Allan Barton said...

That's good to know Ray, is it a medieval example? They are rather daft looking if you look closely at the them, more like pigeons than eagles.

Anonymous said...

Most of the surviving mediaeval ones are in East Anglia. The one at Redenhall has, uniquely, a double-headed eagle. St Giles' Norwich has the one dated 1493 that was formerly in St Gregory's. Simon Knott's photo is at http://www.norfolkchurches.co.uk/norwichgiles/images/dscf2857.jpg
Simon Cotton

Ray Barnes said...

I rather doubt it's antiquity. It is brass and not silver as your example appears to be, but is a good 'copy' I suspect and very attractive.

Fran├žois said...

Besides its fine wooden chancel screen and choir stalls, the Anglican cathedral of Mauritius, in Port Louis, has got a tall brass gospel lectern. It is not antique, though, but still very beautiful. It was loaned to the RC Diocese for the ceremonies of the state visit of JPII in the 1980's.

The cathedral was one of my favourite haunts when i was working in Port Louis. The numerous commemorative plaques seem to sum up the British history of Mauritius. Of late, however, the cathedral has been closed for visits.

Davis said...

They're generally made of latten which is a type of bronze that has a silvery appearance.

Frank Zweegers said...

The Eagle lectern is great, way better than the average lectern.